Biotechnology is changing the production of denim fabric
Biotechnology is a group of technologies which is characterised by working with organisms and their products. This is done with the aim of improving our lives. Modern biotechnology has a great effect on world economy and society. The best example of that is genetic engineering, a process of modifying genes in an organism to remove or add any characteristic. Modern biotechnology has a huge application in textiles like in enzymatic desizing, enzymatic scouring etc.
Use of enzymes has gained global recognition as it is non-toxic and eco-friendly. Enzymatic applications are mainly in textile wet processing and few areas of textile processing. Other advantages of enzyme technology is comparatively lower cost, less processing time, energy and water savings and improved quality. Enzymes are proteins which consist of long linear chains of amino acids that produce three-dimensional products. Each amino acid sequence has a unique property. Novozymes has recently performed two life cycle assessment at textile mills in China. One is bioscouring, which removes impurities in the cotton. The other is bleach clean-up to remove excess bleaching agent prior to dyeing.
Washing clothes improve their comfort. The finishing treatments on the garments during washing are the important parameters which influence the garment shade and mechanical properties. Finishing denim garments has various treatment methods like stonewash, moon wash, sand wash, mill wash etc. Recently, enzyme treatment had gained popularity in denim washing because of its eco-friendly nature and because it does not harm the garments.
Some mechanical wash procedures include stone wash, microsanding, whiskering, shot gun denim, water jet fading, super stone wash, ice wash, thermo denim, laser technology finish etc. Chemical washes include denim bleaching, enzyme wash, acid wash, rinse wash etc.
Denim finishing is used to provide functional properties or fashionable flair. In olden days, finishing treatments were done using chemical and physical processes. Dry treatments are also given to jeans to get the desired effects.